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Internet Censorship

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet. It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations at the behest of government, regulators, or on their own initiative.
Aim:There are three main motives for Internet censorship; politics and power, security and social norms, and morals.
Types:
1
. Active Censorship
2. Passive Censorship
Active Censorship: Active means prosecution of people who spread unsuitable content, for instance arresting them. Active type of internet censorship is also forbidding the Internet (in North Korea), restriction of the Internet and controlling - how people may use the Internet. 
Passive Censorship: Passive means blocking of content. Blocking, can be blocking of TLD, blocking of whole servers, blocking of particular websites, blocking of specific services of web applications, etc.
Advantages:
1
. It can protect young children from adult websites and videos. On the market, there are software products for parents that can block certain web sites, called web filters. 
2. To censor stuff citing moral grounds and those against the legislative. 
3. Some countries censor gambling sites, gay and lesbian sites, sites promoting drugs
and criminality, pornographic sites, sites that contain blasphemous or hate speeches.
Disadvantages:
1
. Violation of Rights: Freedom of Speech and expression of views.
2. Limiting Educational Resources: Often educational sources of contraversial topics are restricted thereby curbing the availability of resources.
3. Widening Social Gaps: Lessens the chances to learn about people around the globe.
4. Business Issues: Businesses can be negatively impacted by Internet censorship. First, they cannot be accessed by all possible consumers -- especially on an international scale. Second, these businesses are unable to access the best websites and businesses for supplies and services. If a business owner can't access certain parts of the Internet, she may not be able to compete fully on a global scale, or access the best resources for products and services required.
Conclusion:  
Everyone has their own opinions, their own expressions, their own views—and the Internet is the best tool to let out there their voices so as to be heard. If that right is taken away from us, no one would have a voice. No one’s opinions would be heard. Some people might have great ideas, but if the government thinks it’s not in the popular opinion, they’ll censor it. Almost everyone gets their information off the Internet now days. If only certain things are censored, everyone would be looking at biased views on everything. They would only be reading about what the government thinks is right. We wouldn’t get to express ourselves and speak freely. Our First Amendment rights would be diminished, and the Internet would definitely loose all its charm. The Internet is a free environment; no one should be allowed to take it away from us.

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New member of WTO: Afghanistan

Afghanistan got the membership of World Trade Organization after 11 years of diplomatic dialogues. This decision was taken at its 10th ministerial conference in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi.
It has become the 164th WTO member and the 36th least developed country (LDC) to join this body.
About World Trade Organistation:
1
. Location: Geneva, Switzerland
2. Established: 1 January 1995
3. Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94)
4. Functions:
• Administering WTO trade agreements
• Forum for trade negotiations
• Handling trade disputes
• Monitoring national trade policies
• Technical assistance and training for developing countries
• Cooperation with other international organizations 
5. Annual Publications:
- WTO Annual Reports
- World Trade Report
- International Trade Statistics

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6 new districts in West Bengal

The West Bengal cabinet ratified a proposal to create six new districts.
These new districts are:
1
. From Darjeeling in North Bengal, new district Kalimpong will be created.
2. Basirhat district would be formed out of North 24 Parganas district of Sunderban. Sundarbans stretches currently across parts of the North and South 24 Parganas districts. 
3. Burdwan district will be bifurcated into Burdwan (Industrial) and Burdwan (Rural).
4. Jhargram, now a police district under West Midnapore district, will become a full-fledged administrative district.

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Rare discovery of eel on West Bengal coast

Discovered by: Zoological Survey of India ( ZSI).
- Discovered at: coast of Digha in West Bengal’s Purba Medinipur district.
- Named as: Gymnothorax mishrai
- Characteristics features: 
1. 32.4 cm long, 
2. Brown in colour  
3. The body is without any patterns. 
4. Categorised among short, brown, patterned moray eels.
5. Categorised among short, brown, patterned moray eels.
6.There are 800 species of eels found across the world and India is home to 150-200 of these fish species. Consumption of eels in India is very less as compared to Japan.

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The President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee received Garwood Award

The President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee received Garwood Award for Outstanding Global Leader in Open Innovation from UC Berkeley-Haas School of Business at Rashtrapati Bhavan.
The award was presented to the President for:
1
. Promoting open innovation; 
2. For taking initiative of hosting and gathering global innovators at the first-ever Global Roundtable on Inclusive Innovations at Rashtrapati Bhavan;
3. Organizing first Festival of Innovation at the Rashtrapati Bhavan: 
In order to link global leaders from technological, financial and educational sectors for the promotion of increased scalability in national and international grassroots innovation; 
4. For launching the first Innovations Scholars' 'In-Residence' programme: 
To promote the spirit of innovation and provide a thriving creative atmosphere for grassroots innovation activities that will have the potential to transform the global landscape; 
5. For urging higher education leaders to establish Innovation Clubs:
It is to catalyze the collaboration between institutions of higher learning and grassroots innovations; 
6. For being a primary supporter of Micro-Venture Innovation Finance which empowers grassroots innovators with the fundamental resources to provide their products and services to global markets; 
7. For being an initiator for innovative solutions towards financial inclusion via national programs that will promote worldwide economic success and for spearheading the establishment of an Innovation promotion platform involving academics, entrepreneurs, and researchers to foster an intercontinental medium of innovation, R&D and scientific research. 
About Garwood Award
1.The University of California, Berkeley, established this award.
2.It is awarded to acknowledge those individuals who have embraced, supported and encouraged open innovation in a significant and impactful way.

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New Scheme for The Navodaya Vidyalaya

The Navodaya Vidyalaya Scheme provides for opening of one Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district of the country. Opening of new Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas in uncovered districts depends on the willingness of the concerned State Government to make available suitable land free of cost for construction of school buildings and required temporary accommodation (free of rent) to start the Vidyalaya, and is subject to the availability of funds and approval by the competent authority. 
About Navodaya Vidyalayas
Motto:
the selection of talented rural children as the target group and the attempt to provide them with quality education comparable to the best in a residential school system. Such education would enable students from rural areas to compete with their urban counterparts on an equal footing. The National Policy on Education-1986 envisaged the setting up of residential schools, to be called Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas that would bring out the best of rural talent.
Objectives 1.To serve the objectives of excellence coupled with equity and social justice.
2.To promote national integration by providing opportunities to talented children, largely rural, from different part of the country, to live and learn together and develop their full potential.3.To provide good quality modern education, including a strong component of culture, inculcation of values, awareness of the environment, adventure activities and physical education.4.To ensure that all students of Navodaya Vidyalayas attain a reasonable level of competence in three language as envisaged in the Three Language Formula; and
5.To serve, in each district, as focal point for improvement in quality of school education through sharing of experiences and facilities.
SALIENT FEATURES
1.
JNVST: Entrance on the basis of Merit
2.Reservation for Rural, S.C., S.T. and Girl Students
3.Promotion of National Integration
About Navodaya Vidyalayas Samiti
Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti which is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary & Higher Education, Govt of India. The Chairman of the Samiti is the Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development.The Samiti (body) is responsible for the overall management including allocation of funds to manage the affairs as well as exercises the authority of powers.

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Ganga River Basin Management Plan-2015 : Report by Group of IITs

The consortium of seven IITs has submitted its report “Ganga River Basin Management Plan-2015” (GRBMP-2015) to the Ministry Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation. The report is under consideration in consultation with other Ministries.

According to the Plan, the Major issues in Ganga river basin are:- 
1
.    Over-use of natural resources of the basin 
2.    Discharge of pollutants into terrestrial and aquatic environments 
3.    Reduction in water –holding capacities and replenishment of water bodies 
4.    Mutilation of rivers by piecemeal engineering operations 
5.    Threats to geological processes in the basin. 
About Ganga River Basin Management Plan
A comprehensive River Basin Management Plan for Ganga is being prepared by the consortium of seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) (Kanpur, Delhi, Madras, Bombay, Kharagpur, Guwahati and Roorkee). 
Objectives of Plan: 
- Taking comprehensive measures for restoration of the wholesomeness of the Ganga ecosystem and improvement of its ecological health, with due regard to the issue of competing water uses in the river basin. 
Vision:
1
. “Aviral Dhara” (Continuous Flow”), 
2. “Nirmal Dhara”(“Unpolluted Flow”), 
3. Geologic Entity, and 
4. Ecological Entity.
Other Missions for River The Ganga :
1
. Geological Safeguarding
2. Nirmal Dhara
3. Aviral Dhara
4. Ecological Restoration
5. Sustainable Agriculture
6. Disaster and Protection Recovery
7. Environmental Knowledge Building and sensitization.

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Ministry of Shipping, Govt. of India formulated National Maritime Development Programme

The National Maritime Development Programme (NMDP) has been formulated by the Ministry of Shipping, Govt. of India.  276 projects to be taken up for implementation over the period from the year 2005 to 2012 were indentified under this programme.  These projects are namely construction/upgradation of berths, deepening of channels, rail/road connectivity projects, equipment upgradation/modernization schemes and other related schemes for creation of backup facilities.  Total investment involved under the Programme is Rs.1,00,339 crores at 2004-05 prices.  Out of this, Rs.55,804 crores is for the Port Sector and the balance is for the Shipping and Inland Water Transport Sectors. 

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Government has decided to adopt Electronic Toll Collection System

Government has decided to adopt passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based on EPC, Gen-2, ISO 18000-6C Standards technology for Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) system for seamless movement on National Highways. The interoperable EFC system has been installed and working on one lane in each direction on the following National Highways stretches:
- Delhi-Mumbai
- Delhi-Chandigarh
- Bangalore-Chennai
About  Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) system
In many countries electronic road tolling systems are being used but, although many of them use similar technologies, few of them are compatible at present. This leads to inefficiencies in the operation of such systems and frustration among drivers.
To address such issues in Europe, the European Commission has published a Directive on Electronic Fee Collection, which emphasizes the need for interoperability of systems. The Directive proposes to introduce the European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) that makes it mandatory for fee collection systems to use one or more of the following technologies:
1. Satellite positioning
2. Mobile communications using the GSM and GPRS standards
3. 5.8 GHz microwave technologies (DSRC).
What is Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ?
RFID stands for Radio-Frequency IDentification. The acronym refers to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less.
The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information.

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Committee submitted its report on Transgenders

An Expert Committee was constituted in the Ministry to make an in-depth study of the problems being faced by the Transgender Community and suggest suitable measures to ameliorate their problems. The Committee submitted its report on 27th January, 2014. The recommendations of the Expert Committee have been forwarded to all the State Governments/UT Administrations for taking appropriate action. Responses from sixteen States/UTs have so far been received in the Ministry. 
Who are transgender people?
Transgender people are individuals of any age or sex whose appearance, personal
characteristics, or behaviors differ from stereotypes about how men and women are
“supposed” to be. Transgender people have existed in every culture, race, and class since the story of human life has been recorded. Only the term “transgender” and the medical
technology available to transsexual people are new. In its broadest sense, transgender
encompasses anyone whose identity or behaviour falls outside of stereotypical gender norms. The Supreme Court judgement on Transgender Rights
This judgement covers persons who want to identify with the third gender as well as persons who want a transition from one identity to another, i.e. to male to female or vice versa. The Court has directed Centre and State Governments to grant legal recognition of gender identity whether it be male, female or third gender.
• Legal Recognition for Third Gender: In recognizing the third gender category, the Court ruled that fundamental rights are available to the third gender in the same manner as they are to males and females. Further, non-recognition of third gender in both criminal and civil statutes such as those relating to marriage, adoption, divorce, etc is discriminatory to the third gender.
• Legal Recognition for people transitioning within male/female binary: As for how the actual procedure of recognition will happen, the Court merely states that they prefer to follow the psyche of the person and use the ‘Psychological Test’ as opposed to the ‘Biological Test’. They also declare that insisting on Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) as a condition for changing one's gender is illegal.
• Public Health and Sanitation : Centre and State Governments have been directed to take proper measures to provide medical care to Transgender people in the hospitals and also provide them separate public toilets and other facilities. Further, they have been directed to operate separate HIV/ Sero-surveillance measures for Transgenders.
• Socio-Economic Rights : Centre and State Governments have been asked to provide the community various social welfare schemes and to treat the community as socially and economically backward classes. They have also been asked to extend reservation in educational institutions and for public appointments.
• Stigma and Public Awareness : These are the broadest directions - Center and State Governments are asked to take steps to create public awareness so that Transgender people will feel that they are also part and parcel of the social life and not be treated as untouchables; take measures to regain their respect and place in society; and seriously address the problems such as fear, shame, gender dysphoria, social pressure, depression, suicidal tendencies, and social stigma.

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